Repositories and their harvesters have a rule of their own that violates Dublin Core standards. Because of this, are repositories and harvesters on target for a massive retroversion or major set of patches if they are to be a part of the semantic web? (I don’t know, but I’d like to be sure about the answer.)
Once again at a Dublin Core conference I listened to some excellent presentations on the functionality and potential applications of Dublin Core, but this time I had to see if I could poop the party and ask at least one speaker why the nice theory and applications everywhere simply did not work with the OAI harvesting of repositories.
I like to think that standards have good rationales. The web, present and future (e.g. the semantic web) is predicated upon internationally recognized standards like Dublin Core. According to the DCMI site the fifteen element descriptions of Simple Dublin Core have been formally endorsed by:
- ISO Standard 15836-2003 of February 2003 [ISO15836]
- ANSI/NISO Standard Z39.85-2007 of May 2007 [NISOZ3985]
- IETF RFC 5013 of August 2007 [RFC5013]
But there is one area where there is a clear conflict between DCMI element definitions and OAI-PMH protocols. The DC usage guide explains the identifier element:
Label: Resource Identifier
Element Description: An unambiguous reference to the resource within a given context. Recommended best practice is to identify the resource by means of a string or number conforming to a formal identification system. Examples of formal identification systems include the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) (including the Uniform Resource Locator (URL), the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) and the International Standard Book Number (ISBN).
Guidelines for content creation:
This element can also be used for local identifiers (e.g. ID numbers or call numbers) assigned by the Creator of the resource to apply to a particular item. It should not be used for identification of the metadata record itself.
Contrast the OAI-PMH protocol:
A unique identifier unambigiously identifies an item within a repository; the unique identifier is used in OAI-PMH requests for extracting metadata from the item. Items may contain metadata in multiple formats. The unique identifier maps to the item, and all possible records available from a single item share the same unique identifier.
The same protocol explains that an item is clearly distinct from the resource and points to metadata about the resource:
- resource – A resource is the object or “stuff” that metadata is “about”. The nature of a resource, whether it is physical or digital, or whether it is stored in the repository or is a constituent of another database, is outside the scope of the OAI-PMH.
- item – An item is a constituent of a repository from which metadata about a resource can be disseminated. That metadata may be disseminated on-the-fly from the associated resource, cross-walked from some canonical form, actually stored in the repository, etc.
- record - A record is metadata in a specific metadata format. A record is returned as an XML-encoded byte stream in response to a protocol request to disseminate a specific metadata format from a constituent item.
I wrote about this clash of standards and protocols in another post last year. One response was to direct readers to Best Practices for OAI Data Provider Implementations and Shareable Metadata.
The working result for many repositories is a crazy inconsistency. Within a single Dublin Core record for OAI harvesting the same element name, identifier, can actually be used to identify different things:
<oai_dc:dc xmlns:oai_dc="http://www.openarchives.org/OAI/2.0/oai_dc/" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.openarchives.org/OAI/2.0/oai_dc/ http://www.openarchives.org/OAI/2.0/oai_dc.xsd"> <dc:title>Using Structural Metadata . . . </dc:title> <dc:creator>Dushay, Naomi</dc:creator> <dc:subject>Digital Libraries</dc:subject> <dc:description>[Abstract here]</dc:description> <dc:description>23 pages including 2 appendices</dc:description> <dc:date>2001-12-14</dc:date> <dc:type>e-print</dc:type> <dc:identifier>http://eprints.repository.edu/318/</dc:identifier> <dc:identifier>1-85636-082-X</dc:identifier> </oai_dc:dc>
In this OAI DC the first identifier identifies the splash page for the resource in the repository. The second identifier identifies the resource itself. It works for now, between agreeable partners. But how sustainable is such a contradiction? What is the point of standards?
As far as I understand the issue, this breakdown in the application of the Dublin Core standard is the result of institutional repositories needing their own branding to come between users and the resources they are seeking. Without that branding they would scarcely have the institutional support that enables them to exist in the first place.
Surely there must be other ways for harvesters to be aware of the source of any particular resource harvested and hence there must be other ways they can meet the branding requirement. Surely there is a way to retrieve an identified resource (not an identified metadata page about the resource) and to display it with some branding banner that will alert users to the repository — and related files and resources — where it is archived. Yes?
I mention “related files and resources” along with the branding page — but maybe this is a separate issue. Where a single resource consists of multiple files then is the metadata page a valid proxy for that resouce anyway? Or is there another way of displaying these?
Australia has had the advantage of a national metadata advisory body, MACAR. The future of MACAR into next year is still under discussion, but such an issue would surely be an ideal focus for such a body — to examine how this clash impacts the potentials of repositories today and in the future. A national body like MACAR has a lot more leverage for pioneering changes if and where necessary.
What should be done?
What can be done?
But is there more? more confusion of terms?
In having another look at the DCMI site for this post I noticed something else in the latest DC Element Set description page:
Term Name: identifier
Definition: An unambiguous reference to the resource within a given context.
Comment: Recommended best practice is to identify the resource by means of a string conforming to a formal identification system.
DCMI recommends that an identifier be “a string”. In the context of RDF and the semantic web my understanding of “string” is a dead-end set of letters as opposed to a resolvable uri or “thing”. But the DC Usage Guide “explains” that an applicable formal identification system allowed here can also be a URI. So what don’t I understand about the difference between strings and (RDF) things, now?